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More important however, they begin to address the issue, largely ignored until now, of exactly why and when the various systems are employed in judgments.
The work can lead towards more accurate predictions of when the respective Systems may be engaged.
For example, in one experiment participants were asked a series of questions, known as the Cognitive Reflection Test, designed to assess the degree to which System 1 intuitive processes are engaged in decision-making.
In this test the gut reaction answer is invariably incorrect.
One of the more enduring ideas in psychology, dating back to the time of William James a little more than a century ago, is the notion that human behavior is not the product of a single process, but rather reflects the interaction of different specialized subsystems.
These systems, the idea goes, usually interact seamlessly to determine behavior, but at times they may compete.
found that by making the problem simply more difficult to read (by using grayed-out, reduced-size font), participants seemed to shift to more considered, System 2 responses, and as a result answered more of the questions correctly.
The authors repeated this effect in various situations.
The end result is that the brain sometimes argues with itself, as these distinct systems come to different conclusions about what we should do.
The major distinction responsible for these internal disagreements is the one between automatic and controlled processes.
In a series of clever experiments, the authors manipulated the “perceptual fluency” of various sets of stimuli.
In other words, they made it harder for people to understand or decipher the scenarios they were asked to judge.
A major cause of these observed idiosyncrasies of decision-making may be that controlled processing accounts for only part of our overall behavioral repertoire, and in some circumstances can face stiff competition from domain-specific automatic processes that are part of System 1.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating