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Lillian Schwartz, a graphic consultant at the School of Visual Arts in New York, claims that the image is a self-portrait of Leonardo, which was made using a crude photographic technique.Using computer scans she found that the face on the Turin Shroud and a self portrait of Leonardo da Vinci share the same dimensions.

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And forgers have produced a fair number of forgeries in the last 40 or 50 years, and this is the way they do it. Israel Museum curators have called “Gabriel’s Revelation” the most important document found in the area since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Fortunately, this testing has reportedly been done just recently, although the results are not yet published.

Read the original English publication of “Gabriel’s Revelation” by Ada Yardeni along with Israel Knohl's article that made scholars around the world reconsider links between ancient Jewish and Christian messianism in the free e Book There are also additional aspects of the carbon-14 test that deserve scrutiny. But even this is not the sort of thing that can prove that the writing on the Jerusalem Papyrus is ancient.

Alas, that too is an interesting (and problematic) line of reasoning for the Jerusalem Papyrus. One of the most important features of a construct chain is the form of the first noun in the construct chain.

After all, for carbon dating carbon materials from antiquity, there is normally a fairly substantial plus or minus range. And sure enough, the devil was in the details here, as well—even more seriously than I had initially thought. That noun is said to be in the “construct state” (and the noun that follows it is said to be in the absolute state).

Namely, quite a number of people said to me that the papyrus was carbon dated to the seventh century B. E., and the script is also dated to the seventh century B. E.; therefore, they said, that sort of correspondence is very good evidence for the antiquity of the writing. (I’m grateful to Israel Finkelstein for mentioning the problems with the Hallstatt Plateau to me). Obviously, therefore, it cannot be said that the papyrus itself definitely dates to the seventh century B. After all, it has been known for many decades now that the core element of carbon-based inks is (of course! Such remains are readily available (e.g., on excavations or from the antiquities market) in the form of burned wood, charred beams, or (as Yuval Goren mentioned to me recently) even by simply scraping of the carbon off from a cooking pot that had been used in antiquity. Within the Semitic languages, including Hebrew and Aramaic, is a linguistic construction called a “construct.” In its most basic form, a construct chain consists of the juxtaposition of two nouns (or nominals).

After all, it might be difficult to find a piece of papyrus that was from the seventh century. Once some carbonized remains are in hand, a savvy forger can readily make a nice carbon-based ink, and one that would even yield an ancient carbon-14 date. So, for example, the phrase “Law of Moses” is a construct chain, and the phrase “Song of Songs” is as well.

To put it differently, only the dullest of forgers would forge an inscription on modern papyrus, modern vellum, modern potsherds, or modern metals. In other words, there is not some sort of dramatic convergence of the carbon date and the putative date of the script.

After all, most forgers are quite sharp and they know that laboratory tests are routinely performed, and so the forgers know that it is important for them to use ancient materials from the correct period as their medium (e.g., using a piece of Iron Age pottery and then write on it using a correct script from the Iron Age, or using a piece of papyrus that is putatively from the Iron Age for an Iron Age inscription). At the time of the publication of the Jerusalem Papyrus, no testing of the chemical composition of the ink had been done (e.g., with something such as a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer).

Miss Schwartz came to prominence in the 1980s when she made detailed measurements of the Mona Lisa and a Leonardo self-portrait.

To her amazement, the two faces lined up perfectly, leading her to suggest that he used a self portrait as a model for the painting. 'There is no doubt in my mind that the proportions that Leonardo wrote about were used in creating this Shroud's face.' According to a Channel Five documentary to be shown tonight, Leonardo scorched his facial features on to the linen of the Shroud using a sculpture of his face and a photographic device called a 'camera obscura'.

Thus, I found it hard to believe (in spite of the initial press reports) that the carbon date for this papyrus would fall in, and only in, the seventh century B. Basically, the carbon dates for the Jerusalem Papyrus fell into the Hallstatt Plateau, and so all that can actually be said is that this papyrus dates to sometime between 800 B. And when that first noun is a masculine plural or dual plural, its construct form is quite different from its absolute form. In the Hebrew Bible, it is spelled .” The problem with the spelling in the Jerusalem Papyrus is that the m is not supposed to be there.

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