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In addition, contraception helps lengthen the interval of birth spacing, improving perinatal outcomes and child survival.

In developing countries, the risk of prematurity and low birth weight doubles when conception occurs within 6 months of a previous birth, and children born within 2 years of an elder sibling are 60% more likely to die in infancy than are those born more than 2 years after their sibling.

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It is not expensive to help all women to be in fully control of the timing and frequency of their childbearing.

The key obstacles are religious, cultural, and political opposition to contraception or the possibility of population decline.

The conference aims at building on past commitments made in the first ICPD conference held in Cairo, Egypt in 1994.

The Programme of Action adopted nearly two decades ago set a target of reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015; which is also one of the most urgent targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Over 20% of births worldwide result from pregnancies women did not wish to occur.

It is estimated that 215 million women in developing countries are sexually active, but don't want to become pregnant; in other words, they have an unmet need for family planning.

Increases in contraceptive use account for about 75% of fertility decline in developing countries in the past six decades and have substantially reduced the proportion of pregnancies in women of high parity, which pose a greater-than-average risk to maternal survival In 2008, contraceptive use averted over 250,000 maternal deaths worldwide by reducing unintended pregnancies, which is equivalent to 40% of the 355,000 maternal deaths that occurred that year If all women in developing countries who want to avoid pregnancy use an effective contraceptive method, the number of maternal deaths would fall by a further 30% Because of its effect on births to women of high parity and on the need to resort to unsafe abortion, contraception also reduces the risk of maternal death per pregnancy; each 1% increase in contraceptive use reduces the maternal mortality ratio by 4·8 deaths per 100 000 live births In rich and poor countries the risks of prematurity and low birth weight are substantially raised by short intervals, and in developing countries, risk of death in infancy (ages Members of parliament meeting at the fifth International Parliamentarians Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) - held in Istanbul - agreed the economic crunch is no reason for governments to relax their commitment to women's reproductive rights and health, made 18 years ago.

Babatunde Osotimehin, executive director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) said 250 million women around the world do not have access to much-needed family planning services.

More research and a public better educated about sexuality and reproduction could engender a global social movement that would make possible a world of intended pregnancies and births.

Before, we didn't know how to control pregnancy, we didn't have the education, and people in the area were having nine or ten children.

The world could possibly reduce consumption down to a very basic level, but if population keeps growing, eventually that will not be enough.

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