Number 14 carbon 14 dating denotes amount

That medieval French cooks too this warning seriously and rarely roasted their beef is evident in the large stocks of beef bouillon that our recipes imply was always on hand for ready use in other preparations." ---Early French Cookery: Sources, History, Original Recipes and Modern Adaptations, D.

If the ignorant cook were to subject beef to a roasting, so further drying its already dry nature, this could be quite dangerous to the unfortunate person who was to eat it later, and could even put him or her at risk of an attack of melancholia or a bilous upset.

It was virtually everyone's aspiration to have meat on his table...

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Simple physical damage to the muscle fibers causes them to release more of their fluids and therefore more stimulating substances for the tongue.

Cooking intensifies the taste of meat and creates its aroma.

This early reference notes this stage is unwholesome [Markam]. Medium/medium rare were introduced about this time. Originally only of eggs: slightly or imperfectly cooked, underdone. And indeed, among winged creatures they can eat with pleasure wood pigeons still running with blood and scarcely touched by fire.' Bruyerin advocated the middle way, warning that there would be a penalty to pay for eating either half-raw or 'melting' meat.

"A Chicken in Every Pot" airline chicken American bison & buffalo bacon bear beef beef Stroganoff beef Wellington beefalo blood booya brawn Brunswick stew burgoo carpetbag steak Chateaubriand chicken chicken a la King chicken & waffles chicken burgers chicken cacciatora chicken chasseur chicken Cordon Bleu chicken Francese chicken franks chicken fried steak chicken Kiev chicken Marengo chicken nuggets chicken parm chicken salad chicken sandwich (fast food) chicken Tartare chicken tikka masala chicken Vesuvio chicken Wellington Christmas goose city chicken confit coq au vin corn dogs & Pronto Pups corned beef coronation chicken country captain chicken crab croquettes cube steak deep fried turkey deer donkers dormice duck duck a l'orange finger steaks foie gras frankfurters fried chicken goats gravy Guinea fowl ham head cheese horsemeat hot dogs Irish stew Jamaican Jerk jambalaya jerky kebabs King Ranch chicken Kobe beef lamb lamb & mint Lebanon balogna lobster London broil marrow bones meatloaf & meatballs minced meats & hash mincemeat pies mole poblano mutton mutton birds New England Boiled Dinner osso buco pastrami paupiettes Peking duck pemmican picnic ham pigeon pigs in Blankets porcupines pork & applesauce pork & beans pork & sauerkraut pork steak pot roast pulled pork Salisbury steak sausages of Italy scallops shark steaks sheep shrimp Sloppy joes SPAM spiral carved ham squab squirrel steak au Poivre steak Diane steak Tartare Swedish meatballs sweetbreads Swiss steak tempura Tetrazzini Toad-in-the-hole tri-tip steak Turducken Turkey & cranberry sauce turkey & dressing turkey bacon unturkey venison wiener schnitzel zoo animals According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "rare," counterbalancing "done" describing the doneness of meat, descends from the word "rear," meaning imperfectly cooked or underdone. The earliest print reference to the word "rare" relating to meat cookery is circa 1615. They commend the wether almost raw, but pork cooked until it almost melts [that is, until it falls apart].

Medieval physicists--or physicians--told their contemporaries that cooking added either warmth and moisture or warmth and dryness to their foodstuff that was cooked: the cook chose his cooking method according to the inherent nature of the foodstuff and any need he had to correct this nature.

F j b, Poched egges are better than egges rosted hard or rere. 86-87) [Medieval France] "Modern physicists tell us that cooking changes the chemical characteristics of a substance.

It was salted, smoked, and even preserved in honey...

Naturally there were serious problems in keeping the meat fresh, since mechanical refrigeration was unavailable.

Unfortunately, these two aims conflict with each other... The method must be tailored to the meat's toughness.

The ideal method for cooking meat would therefore minimize moisture loss and compacting of the meat fiers, while maximizing the conversion of tough connective-tissue colllagen to fluid gelatin.

29-30) [16th-17th century France] "In 1560 Bruyerin avowed that he had 'more than once' seen '[half-cooked meats devoured so that blood almost flowed from the mouths of those who were eating.

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