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COMPETITION FOR ORIENTED FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCHRFBR has been holding competitions since 2004 for oriented fundamental research that is in essence research projects that have prospects of commercialisation. The results of research which had been performed with RFBR support are used in high technology that forms the basis of innovation economics. In the years that have passed, administrations of 65 subjects of Russian Federation have taken the role of organisers of competitions together with RFBR; in most of them holding such competitions has become a tradition.

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In organising such competitions the interests of the federation subjects are a priority.

The principal scientific directions of the regional competitions are: - developing the theoretical foundations and mathematical models for rational use of natural resources;- studying natural laws for development of huge regions: Arctic, West Siberia, Ural, Chernozem, the Yenisei meridian, and Middle and Upper Volga;- fundamental scientific research directed towards creating resource-saving technologies, new renewable energy sources, and new materials;- studying environmental pollution of various kinds and searching for methods of liquidating their consequences and rehabilitating ecosystems;- problems of studying, preserving, and developing national culture and artifacts of cultural heritage.

This is a completely new organisational form for Russian science, which has opened to scientists broader possibilities for creative self-expression and allowed them to choose the subjects of research on their own, create research groups and concentrate funds in the most promising research directions.

The Foundation carries out its activities in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws, decrees and directives of the President of the Russian Federation, decrees and directives of the Government of the Russian Federation, and its charter.

RFBR COMPETITIONSThe main task of the Foundation is to select on the basis of competitions the best scientific projects among those that were submitted to the Foundation by scientists in an initiative order and subsequently to support the selected projects organisationally and financially.

Scientific directions supported by the Foundation are: - mathematics, mechanics, and information technology;- physics and astronomy;- chemistry and studies of materials;- biology and medical science;- Earth science;- humanities and social sciences;- information technology and computer systems;- fundamental basics of engineering sciences.RFBR PROGRAM “MOBILITY OF YOUNG SCIENTISTS”To fulfill the directive of the President of the Russian Federation from Aug 4, 2006, #Pr-1321 and in accordance with the decision of RFBR Board from Dec 19, 2006, and Mar 29, 2007, the Foundation holds competitions for supporting the mobility of young scientists.Young specialists under the age of 35 permanently living and working on the territory of Russia Federation can take part in the competitions.RFBR FINANCINGAccording to the Government's decision, beginning with 1997, 6% of funding in the federal budget assigned to financing fundamental research and facilitating scientific and technical progress is sent to RFBR each year. It corresponds, among others, to the five directions defined by the President of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev: Energy efficiency and energy saving Fundamental problems of creating semiconducting nanostructures for electronics and renewable energy sources Fundamental bases of forming resource base of strategic raw materials Nuclear technology Competition on behalf of nuclear energy state corporation “Rosatom”Space Technology Competition on behalf of Federal Space Agency Medical technology Fundamental bases of creating new drugs and vaccines Fundamental aspects of eukaryote genomics and proteomics Competition on behalf of Russian academy of medical science Strategic Information Technology Fundamental problems of using supercomputers of the petaflop class for detailed prognostic modelling in scientific and engineering research Developing fundamental bases, algorithmic bases and calculation methods for information systems of a new generation According to agreements with organisations and departments the Foundation finances projects in the following fields: • critical industrial technology, primarily nanotechnology;• electronic component base;• technology for radio-technical, information managing system and telecommunications;• special chemical technology;• technologies of avionics, shipbuilding, industrial equipment, energetics, and transport systems;• securing economic safety;• other scientifically important and competitive directions.RFBR grants are given as subsidies to legal entities for targeted use without the need to return the funds. The results of research are applied during Federal targeted programs and conform to Priority directions for development of science and technology and the subjects of RFBR competitions.INTRODUCTIONRussian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) was created by decree #426 of the President of the Russian Federation “On urgent measures for preserving scientific and technological potential of the Russian Federation” and is a self-governed state nonprofit organisation in the form of a federal organisation controlled by the Government of the Russian Federation.

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