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Disbar for alcohol abuse; detection and prevention of alcohol and substance abuse in the legal profession; alcoholic lawyer; disbarment for drug abuse; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics; CLE. If defendant plea of guilty is based on reasonably competent advice, it is intelligent plea not open to attack on the ground defendant counsel may have misjudged admissibility of defendant confession. When a prospective juror harbors preconceived notions of defendant guilt that cannot be set aside by consideration of the evidence, the juror must be dismissed for cause to ensure an impartial jury. When the evidence discloses any possibility that a juror views arise from the sufficiency of government evidence, disqualification must be denied.

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What is ethical; business ethics; ethical issues; ethics requirements; ethical responsibility; ethical standards; attorney ethics and professional responsibility; legal ethics; mandatory ethics CLE; ethics class; ethical businesses. Energy Systems, Inc.; mere congregation of a corporation's directors in same room does not necessarily result in a board meeting, and does not obviate the need for adherence to corporate bylaws and General Corporation Law. Haft; Under Delaware corporation law, an interest sufficient to support an irrevocable proxy must either be an interest in the stock itself or an interest in the corporation generally, such as being CEO. Shareholders Litigation; The fiduciary duty of loyalty requires directors and officers to offer investment opportunities derived from corporate business to the corporation before acting on them individually. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act; Connect the inferences fraud Rule 10b-5. Securities and Exchange Commission; Because investors rely on the reputation, integrity, independence, and expertise of an underwriter, the underwriter has a obligation to investigate and disclose material facts. Despite a claim of innocence, the fifth amendment protection against self-incrimination is available to all those who have reasonable cause to apprehend danger from a direct answer. Perjury; criminal defendant is not deprived of the effective assistance of counsel when his lawyer admonishes him not to give perjured testimony and threatens to disclose to the court any false testimony the defendant may give.

Causes of divorce; divorce costs; divorce laws; divorce advice; divorce attorney; dissolution of marriage; division of marital assets; divorce separation agreement; dividing marital assets; dividing marital property. Allegations in the complaint, taken together, must give rise to an inference that the defendant acted with the requisite scienter of false statements, knowing. Leonard; determining relationship includes reasonable expectation of significant investor control, and not investment contract, courts look beyond formal terms of documents circumstances surrounding relationship.; passive. Ishopnomarkup.com, Inc; A Rule 506 exemption is not forfeited when the issuer of stock makes a good faith effort to comply with its disclosure requirements; advice of councel; exemption; good faith. The standard for determining whether a defendant is competent to waive the right to counsel and to enter a guilty plea is the same as the standard for determining whether the defendant is competent to stand trial.

Initio Partners; In corporate litigation, the court may order the payment of counsel fees and related expenses to a plaintiff whose efforts resulted in the creation of a common fund or the conferring of a corporate benefit. Elevator Co., Inc.; Benefits accruing for services rendered prior to the bankruptcy petition ordinarily relate back to the date of the services but "retiree benefits" under the Bankruptcy Code have a priority claim. De Wolff, Boberg & Associates, Inc.; Although no remedy is available for individual injuries in defined contribution plan, individuals may recover for fiduciary breaches that impair the value of plan assets in the participant's individual account. Sixth amendment confrontation clause demands, for an out of court statement to be admitted into evidence, the witness must be unavailable and defendant must have prior opportunity to cross examine the declarant. The confrontation clause is not violated by the admission of a nontestifying codefendant confession, with proper limiting instruction, when the confession is redacted to eliminate defendant name and any reference to her existence. Under the fifth amendment, a prosecutor may not comment on a defendant s decision not to testify at his trial and the court may not instruct the jury that the defendant's silence is evidence of his guilt. The fifth amendment protection against double jeopardy bars trial of an acquitted defendant on another charge unless the prior acquittal was based on evidence other than that involved in the second prosecution. Person who has been held in criminal contempt for committing criminal offense may not be criminally prosecuted for committing underlying offense if prosecution for the criminal offense does not require proof of different facts. A penalty will implicate the double jeopardy clause only if there was a legislative intent that the penalty be criminal in nature and if the statutory scheme is so punitive as to make the remedy criminal. A judge may not increase a sentence beyond the maximum allowed for an offense based on facts not proven at trial or admitted as a part of the guilty plea. In order to challenge a death sentence on the basis of racial discrimination, a defendant must show either a discriminatory purpose in his case or a discriminatory purpose in enacting or maintaining the death penalty. Under the eighth amendment, bail must be reasonably fixed to ensure a defendant will appear at trial based on the specific facts of the crime charged and not the character of the crime. If have probable cause to believe automobile contains articles that they may be entitled to seize, may search the vehicle pursuant to lawful arrest, without warrant, or impound vehicle into police custody to search at later time. Voluntary consent of any joint occupant of a residence to search the premises jointly occupied is valid against the co-occupant, permitting evidence discovered in the search to be used against the latter at a criminal trial. A secured party may not recover a deficiency judgment if sale of the collateral was commercially unreasonable, but the debtor may recover damages for the creditor's failure to comply with legal requirements for a sale. In re Toshiba America HD DVD Marketing and Sales Practices Litigation; express warranty is not created by mere puffery; a statement about future performance may create express warranty if it is an affirmation or representation.

An employer may order a plant closing or mass layoff before the conclusion of the statutory sixty-day notice period if the closing or mass layoff is caused by business circumstances that were not reasonably foreseeable. Clay Ward Agency, Inc.; assumption of personal liability by a member of an LLC is so antithetical to the purpose of a limited liability company that it must be stated in unequivocal terms. In order for media coverage to infect a trial with unfairness, a juror's preconceived notions of guilt or innocence must prevent him or her from rendering a verdict based on the evidence presented in court. Even when capital defendant family members and defendant himself say no mitigating evidence, lawyer must make reasonable efforts to obtain and review prosecution evidence of aggravation at sentencing phase of trial. Counsel's failure to obtain the defendant's express consent to a strategy of conceding guilt in a capital trial does not render counsel's assistance ineffective when it is reasonable under the circumstances. a defendant can lose his right to be present at trial if, after warning by the judge, he conducts himself in a manner so disorderly, disruptive, and disrespectful of the court that trial cannot be carried on with him in courtroom. Millard Refrigerated Services, Inc.; limitation of liability in a warehouse receipt will limit liability, unless the damage was from the the warehouse's conversion of the goods to its own use. Chase Bank, USA; Unauthorized use of a credit card is use of the card by someone without actual, implied, or apparent authority to make charges, and from which the cardholder receives no benefit. Shell Oil Co.; claim for bad faith price setting; a price in an open price contract is set in good faith if it is commercially reasonable and nondiscriminatory; disparate pricing between jobbers and dealers is not evidence of discrimination Central Washington Refrigeration, Inc. Barbee; Uniform Commercial Code; indemnity actions are governed by separate statute of limitation; implied right of indemnity; separate equitable cause of action; UCC. Certified Packaging Corp.; security interest includes the proceeds from a recovery for decreased value of collateral, and not for loss of use of the collateral; destroyed property; damaged property.

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Nothing extreme Just catching me by surprise bind me and make me do as you want, pushing me to explore my boundaries.Business judgment rule; good faith; directors owe corporation and shareholders duty of good faith; business judgment rule does not save directors from liability for the conscious disregard of the consequences of corporate action. AFSCME Employees Pension Plan; Bylaws may be unilaterally adopted by shareholders when they appropriately relate to corporate processes rather than substantive decisions or Board's fiduciary duties. Stephens; misrepresentation material if substantial likelihood disclosure of omitted fact would have been viewed by reasonable investor as having significantly altered total mix of information made available; proxy. Shareholder Derivative Litig; Plaintiff must show directors knew not discharging fiduciary obligations or directors demonstrated conscious disregard for responsibilities; business-judgment rule; exculpatory clause; gross negligence. Stephens; Shareholder ratification applies only to circumstances where fully informed shareholder vote approves director action that does not legally require shareholder approval in order to become legally effective. Cullman; director is "interested" when he derives benefit from transaction that is not shared with other shareholders but lacks "independence" when his decision about transaction controlled directly or indirectly by another; disinterested. Shareholders Litig; Pre-suit demand excused only if shown that a majority of the members of board of directors is either personally interested, or is so dominated by or beholden to an interested director that discretion sterilized. Sidhu; Gross negligence is conduct that constitutes reckless indifference, or actions that are without the bounds of reason, and constitutes a breach of the duty of care; bad faith; exculpatory clause. Horn; The question of whether director is required to offer business opportunity to corporation before taking advantage of it is determined according to relationship between particular director and corporation; accounting; constructive trust. Consolidated Shareholder Litig; A director who uses inside knowledge to enrich employees while avoiding shareholder-imposed requirements is not acting loyally and in good faith as a fiduciary; business-judgment rule. Inter-Tel (Delaware), Inc; directors' defensive actions; burden is on directors to identify legitimate corporate purpose, and show that actions reasonable relation to purpose did not preclude shareholders from exercising right to vote. Nasser; Implied authority is agent reasonably believes he has, shown by evidence of acquiescence of the principal; actual authority; apparent agency; apparent agent; apparent authority; express agency; implied agency. Prometheus Development Company, Inc; A partnership agreement provision that allows an interested partner to count its votes is manifestly unreasonable under California corporations law; limited partner; limited partnership; ratification. Derivative Litigation; the law presumes directors act on an informed basis, in good faith, and in the honest beliefof best interests of company; business judgment rule; derivative action; duty of good faith; fiduciary duty. new constitutional rules of criminal procedure will not be applicable to those cases that have become final before the new rules are announced. Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine aplies to Fourth amendment, not Fifth Amendment; although Miranda requires the suppression of an un-warned admission, the admissibility of any subsequent statement turns on whether it was made voluntarily. Beard; capital defendant and family say no mitigating evidence, but defense lawyer must make reasonable efforts to obtain and review prosecution evidence of aggravation at sentencing phase of trial; death penalty. United States; repeated requests to commit a crime and pleas for sympathy establish entrapment; if defendant's criminal conduct arises from the inducement of law enforcement officers, not the intention of the defendant. Heckenkamp; absent clear warnings, connecting a personal computer to a computer network does not relinquish an otherwise objectively reasonable expectation of privacy; warrantless search. Villarreal; individuals have a reasonable expectation that their letters and other sealed containers will not be opened by government agents without a warrant when they are surrendered to a carrier. Spears; Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1996 creates exception to civil liability for aural interception during business use of a telephone extension; scope of exception limited to the business purpose. Missouri; the constitution prohibits the use of visible shackles during the penalty phase of a criminal trial unless the use is justified by an essential state interest specific to the defendant on trial. Washington; out-of-court statements are inadmissible into evidence if defendant has no opportunity to cross-examine speaker, unless witness is unavailable and defendant has prior opportunity to cross-examine the declarant; hearsay. Gant; Police may search vehicle incident to recent occupant's arrest only if arrestee is within reaching distance of passenger compartment at time search or reasonable to believe vehicle contains evidence offense of arrest; stare decisis. Redding; school search permissible if scope of measures adopted is reasonably related to objectives of search and not excessively intrusive; in loco parentis; qualified immunity. Louisiana; A criminal defendant's consent to police-initiated interrogation cannot be presumed involuntary simply because the court previously appointed a lawyer to represent him; preliminary hearing. United States; Although acquittals may preclude retrial on counts on which the same jury hangs, the consideration of hung counts has no place in the issue preclusion analysis for double jeopardy purposes; hung jury. Gant; Police may search vehicle incident to recent occupant's arrest only if arrestee is within reaching distance of passenger compartment at time of search and reasonable to believe vehicle contains evidence of offense of arrest. Michigan; exclusionary rule not apply suppress evidence obtained in violation knock-and-announce rule; exclusionary rule; fruit-of-the-poisonous-tree-doctrine; inevitable discovery rule; no-knock search warrant. Illinois; Whatever warnings suffice for Miranda's purposes will also be sufficient to safeguard the right to counsel in the context of post-indictment questioning; indict; sixth amendment. Constructive possession of controlled substance is established when the defendant is knowingly in a position or has the right to exercise dominion or control over it, and has some appreciable ability to guide its destiny. Due Process Clause requires the prosecution to prove beyond a reasonable doubt the absence of heat of passion when it is at issue in a homicide prosecution. One who, with full knowledge of the dangers involved, deliberately exposes a person to danger of death or bodily injury is liable for murder upon death of victim. Controlling shareholder; control of sale; presumtion that, in making a business decision, corporate directors act on an informed basis, in good faith, and in the honest belief that the action taken is in the company's best interests. Louisiana-Pacific Resources, Inc; The Commerce Clause is not implicated by a statute that regulates corporations even-handedly and imposes no special or distinct burden on out-of-state interests; dormant commerce clause; straight voting. Mc Kesson HBOC, Inc.; stockholder has right to make written demand to inspect corporate books and records for purpose reasonably related to person's interest as stockholder; derivative action; parent corporation; subsidiary corporation. Verizon Communications, Inc; Stockholders seeking inspection of corporate books and records must present some evidence suggest credible basis from which court can infer mismanagement, waste, or wrongdoing may have occurred. Omission to act by one under a legal duty to do so is sufficient for criminal liability if it is a substantial factor in bringing about the consequences prohibited by statute. Homicide; malice afterthought; manslaughter; murder. Causation; habeas corpus; intervening cause; second-degree murder; superseding cause. Professional ethics; ethics lawyer; lawyer ethics; legal ethics issues; attorney substance abuse and drug addiction; attorney ethics violation; ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct; lawyer legal ethics; Mandatory Continuing Legal Education. The admission at trial of hearsay statements does not violate confrontation clause as long as declarant is unavailable and statements are sufficiently reliable, based either on firmly rooted hearsay exception or other showings of trustworthiness. Federal Impact Aid Program; financial assistance to local school districts; prohibits offsetting federal aid by reducing state aid to a local district; unreasonably interfering with a state program that seeks to equalize per-pupil expenditures. Secretary of Labor; An agency's practice of advising affected entities that a regulation does not apply to them establishes an authoritative departmental interpretation that may not be changed without prior notice and comment. EPA; If Congress grants a procedural right to protect concrete interests,like right to challenge agency action unlawfully withheld, litigant can assert without meeting ordinary standards for redressability and immediacy; standing. Earth Island Institute; doctrine of standing requires federal courts to satisfy plaintiff alleged such personal stake in outcome of controversy to warrant plaintiff's invocation of federal court jurisdiction; case or controversy requirement. City of New York; Use of Line Item Veto Act to cancel spending for a budget item violates the Constitution by permitting the virtual amendment of Congressional acts by the President.; delegation doctrine. Redding; school search permissible in scope when measures adopted reasonably related to objectives of search, not excessively intrusive in light of age and sex of student and nature infraction; qualified immunity. EPA; Because greenhouse gases fit squarely within the Clean Air Act's definition of air pollutant, the EPA has the authority to regulate the emission of such gases from new motor vehicles. Leemon Family LLC; parties to an LLC have substantial authority to shape their own affairs, and any conflicts between the LLC Act and their agreement will be resolved in favor of the agreement. Jaffari; a limited liability company (LLC) is bound by the operating agreement signed by some members and that defines the LLC's governance and operation, even if the LLC itself did not sign. Boland Trane Associates, Inc.; Although an SLC's substantive decisions are presumed reasonable, there is no presumption that the SLC was independent, acted in good faith, or followed reasonable procedures. Cellular Information Systems, Inc.; corporate fiduciary generally must place the corporation's interests before his own, but here no valid expectancy interest and did not usurp any corporate opportunity. Gugliuzzi; the knowledge of an agent acting within the scope of his or her authority is chargeable to the principal, regardless of whether that knowledge is actually communicated. When a non-testifying codefendant confession incriminating defendant is not directly admissible against defendant, the confrontation clause bars its admission at their joint trial, even if the jury is instructed not to consider it against the defendant. A statute is void for vagueness if it fails to specify the conduct punishable thereunder such that the defendant lacks fair warning that his conduct violates the statute. When there is doubt as to whether an instrument has been forged or merely altered, the court will assume that the instrument was altered. Dep't of Interior; promulating a regulation is not the type of agency action ripe for judicial review under the Administrative Procedure Act until there is a specific factual situation; APAStern v. Safe-harbor provision of 27A of the Securities and Exchange Act; fraud on the market theory; forward-looking statements must be accompanied by meaningful cautionary statements that adequately identify important risk factors. Tellabs, Inc.; When inferences of scienter drawn from the plaintiffs' complaint are at least as strong as any opposing inference, the plaintiffs have successfully pled the necessary scienter. Scientific-Atlanta, Inc.; To sustain a § 10(b) cause of action, there must be "requisite causal connection between defendant's misrepresentation and a plaintiff's injury." ; causation; proximate cause; reliance. An accused who requests the appointment of counsel at arraignment is permitted under the sixth amendment to consult with that counsel during any custodial interrogation by the police, absent waiver by the accused. Representations made by a debtor in a purchase-money security agreement regarding the intended use of the collateral will be binding on the debtor and will determine whether the collateral is for business or personal purposes.

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