Situs dating

Due to abnormal arrangement of organs in situs ambiguus, orientation across the left-right axis of the body is disrupted early in fetal development, resulting in severely flawed cardiac development and function in 50–80% of cases.

Poor positioning of the intestine also makes it more prone to blockage, which can result in numerous chronic health issues.

Due to abnormal cardiac development, patients with situs ambiguus usually develop right atrial isomerism consisting of two bilaterally paired right atria, or left atrial isomerism consisting of two bilaterally paired left atria.

Pulmonary valve stenosis results in issues of blood flow to the lungs.

Abdominal organs, including the liver, stomach, intestinal tract, and spleen may be randomly arranged throughout the left-right axis of the body.

Individuals with right atrial isomerism develop 2 sinoatrial nodes, as they have 2 mirrored right atria, whereas those with left atrial isomerism fail to develop a sinus node at all.

Thus, patients with left atrial isomerism are more likely to experience atrial fibrillation, or irregular rapid heart beat, and abnormal heart rhythm, known as atrial flutter.

Patients with situs ambiguus are considered isomeric in that they have organs with two right-sides or two left-sides, most commonly observed in relation to the atria of the heart.

Individuals with situs inversus or situs solitus do not experience fatal dysfunction of their organ systems, as general anatomy and morphology of the abdominothoracic organ-vessel systems are conserved.

Additional estimation of incidence and prevalence of isomerism proves difficult due to failure to diagnose and underestimation of the disease by clinicians.

Furthermore, right isomerism is much more easily recognized than left isomerism, contributing to the failure to diagnose.

These impairments, in addition to congestion in the pulmonary tract, allows deoxygenated blood to mix with oxygenated blood, contributing to cyanosis and possible respiratory distress.

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