dutch international dating - The cost effectiveness of fluoridating water supplies in new zealand

Although no major differences between natural and artificial fluoridation were apparent, the evidence was inadequate for a conclusion about any differences.

A 2015 Cochrane systematic review estimated a reduction in cavities when water fluoridation was used by children who had no access to other sources of fluoride to be 35% in baby teeth and 26% in permanent teeth. does not have school-based dental care, many children do not visit a dentist regularly, and for many U. children water fluoridation is the prime source of exposure to fluoride.

Fluoride may also prevent cavities in adults of all ages. Fluoride's adverse effects depend on total fluoride dosage from all sources.

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Fluoridated water operates on tooth surfaces: in the mouth, it creates low levels of fluoride in saliva, which reduces the rate at which tooth enamel demineralizes and increases the rate at which it remineralizes in the early stages of cavities.

Recent studies suggest that water fluoridation, particularly in industrialized nations, may be unnecessary because topical fluorides (such as in toothpaste) are widely used, and caries rates have become low.

The views on the most efficient method for community prevention of tooth decay are mixed.

The Australian government states that water fluoridation is the most effective way to achieve fluoride exposure that is community-wide.

Rivers and lakes generally contain fluoride levels less than 0.5 mg/L, but groundwater, particularly in volcanic or mountainous areas, can contain as much as 50 mg/L.

Higher concentrations of fluorine are found in alkaline volcanic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, and other rocks derived from highly evolved magmas and hydrothermal solutions, and this fluorine dissolves into nearby water as fluoride.

These standards are not appropriate for all parts of the world, where fluoride levels might be excessive and fluoride should be removed from water, and is based on assumptions that have become obsolete with the rise of air conditioning and increased use of soft drinks, processed food, fluoridated toothpaste, and other sources of fluorides.

Fluoride naturally occurring in water can be above, at, or below recommended levels.

The European Food Safety Authority's Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) considers fluoride not to be an essential nutrient, yet, due to the beneficial effects of dietary fluoride on prevention of dental caries they have defined an Adequate Intake (AI) value for it. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), based on the recommendation of the U. Public Health Service (PHS) for fluoridation of community water systems, recommended that bottled water manufacturers limit fluoride in bottled water to no more than 0.7 milligrams per liter (mg/L)(milligrams per liter, equivalent to parts per million).

The AI of fluoride from all sources (including non-dietary sources) is 0.05 mg/kg body weight per day for both children and adults, including pregnant and lactating women. Previous recommendations were based on evaluations from 1962, when the U. specified the optimal level of fluoride to range from 0.7 to 1.2 mg/L (milligrams per liter, equivalent to parts per million), depending on the average maximum daily air temperature; the optimal level is lower in warmer climates, where people drink more water, and is higher in cooler climates.

Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.

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