itemupdating - Updating the rna polymerase ctd

The consensus CTD repeat motif and tandem organization represent the ancestral state of eukaryotic RPB1, but across eukaryotes CTDs show considerable diversity in repeat organization and sequence content.

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For each species, we counted the number of CTD repeats overall, the number of consensus repeats, and the number of repeats with lysine residues (Figure Lysine-containing CTD repeats first appeared in Metazoa and increased in prevalence in the ancestor of Deuterostomia.

Phylogenetic tree of eukaryotic species considered in our analysis organized by approximate divergence estimates.

RNA polymerase II generates all protein-coding m RNAs as well as a large number of non-coding micro RNAs (mi RNAs), small nuclear RNAs (sn RNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (sno RNAs).

The enzyme is composed of 12 subunits (RPB1–12), five of which are shared among the three eukaryotic polymerase complexes.

Conserved heptad repeats are found in the linker-proximal part of the mammalian CTD, but the sequence of the distal heptad repeats, which are not present in yeast, diverge from this consensus sequence.

Eight of the non-consensus repeats in human and mouse CTDs carry a lysine at position 7 (K The human RNA polymerase II subunit 1 (RPB1) C-terminal domain (CTD) contains more heptad repeats than the yeasts, and eight of its non-consensus distal repeats have a lysine residue.

In this schematic of the RPB1 CTD for two species of yeast and human, consensus heptad repeats (YSPTSPS) are colored dark gray; repeats with a lysine at position 7 are colored red; and all other non-consensus repeats are in white. Human, mouse, and zebrafish were selected as representative vertebrate species, based on their phylogenetic placement and sequence data quality.

In addition to the three vertebrates, we also examined CTD amino acid sequences for 35 other eukaryotes, including worms, insects, fungi, plants, algae, and several recently sequenced early branching animals.

For each species, the number of RPB1 CTD repeats and lysine-containing repeats are given.

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